Changes to the Earth

Short term changes include disruption of the land caused by Earthquake and Volcanic activity.  Erosion by water or wind may happen over the short term, or over the long term, depending on the conditions which exist in an area.  Volcanic eruptions can eject large quantities of volcanic ash into the atmosphere, temporarily changing climate.  Volcanic eruptions can locally affect weather conditions, even generating lightning within the erupting ash cloud.  Earthquakes can disrupt traffic flow, communications and power transmission. 

 Long term changes may result from volcanic activity, particularly the flow of lava.  Volcanic ash tends to slowly mix with topsoil, producing fertile farming area.  Volcanic activity may modify the shape of a harbor or island for long periods of time.  Volcanic activity may make areas uninhabitable for many years.  Earthquakes may destroy buildings and claim lives.  Earthquakes may change the shape of a coastline, and has been known to cause massive crustal shifts in coastal environments. 

Glaciation and ice ages have mostly long -term effects.   The more snow, and ice the cooler the climate and the more sun is reflected back into space.   The movements of large glaciers plows the land and forms specific landforms over time.   Short-term effects would be meltwater, erosion, and deposition of material both near and/or away from the glaciers.   Many different species of animals may evolve or die off depending on the presence of water and the climate and conditions that are created by glaciation.

many of the Earth’s functions has lead us to believe that there are many factors that effect the Earth in both the short-term and the long-term. 


  1. What did they find out about the yellowstone crater?



  2. What do dying or brown trees tell us about the potential of a volcanic eruption?




  3. What is meant by “Seismic Tomography”?




  4. What was the worst case scenario the senior scientist showed the government  woman?






  5. What was the VEI index of the Mt. ST. Helen’s eruption?   What is the VEI idex of a  supervolcano?






pgs. 61-71

What is a mineral? (another view besides your notes)



Inorganic and Naturally occuring minerals...What does this mean?




The structure of minerals...Draw them with examples from page 63.










How minerals form.  (  3 ways)








Crystals from solution....What is this?




Mineral composition and groups.  ( list some of the groups with Silicates being the largest)




Mineral identification ( this is where we will experiment for a while)

Physical properties-




Hardness- ( somewhere in your notebook write down MOH’s scale Pg. 68











Cleavage and Fracture-