Northern Coniferous Forest
Also called the Taiga or Boreal Forest
Introduction.The taiga or boreal forest exists as a nearly continuous belt of
coniferous trees across North America and Eurasia. Overlying formerly glaciated areas and
areas of patchy permafrost on both continents. Taiga is the
Russian name for this forest which covers so much of that country. However, the term is
used in North America as well.
Climate: The taiga corresponds with regions of subarctic and cold continental
climate . Long, severe winters (up to six
months with mean temperatures below freezing) and short summers (50 to 100 frost-free
days) are characteristic, as is a wide range of temperatures between the lows of winter
and highs of summer. For example, Verkhoyansk, Russia, has recorded extremes of minus
90 ° Fand plus 90 ° F. Mean annual precipitation is 15 to 20 inches, but low
evaporation rates make this a humid climate.
Vegetation: Needleleaf, coniferous trees are the dominant plants of
the taiga biome. A very few species in four main genera are found: the evergreen spruce
(Picea), fir (Abies), and pine (Pinus), and the
deciduous larch or tamarack (Larix). In North America, one or two
species of fir and one or two species of spruce are dominant. Across Scandanavia and
western Russia the Scots pine is a common component of the taiga.
Growthforms: The conical or spire-shaped needleleaf trees common to the taiga
are adapted to the cold and the physiological drought of winter and to the short-growing
- Conical shape - promotes shedding of snow and prevents loss of branches.
- Needleleaf - narrowness reduces surface area through which water may be lost
(transpired), especially during winter when the frozen ground prevents plants from
replenishing their water supply. The needles of boreal conifers also have thick waxy
coatings--a waterproof cuticle for protection from drying
- Evergreen habit - retention of foliage allows plants to photosynthesize as soon as
temperatures permit in spring, rather than having to waste time in the short growing
season merely growing leaves.
- Dark color - the dark green of spruce and fir needles helps the foliage absorb maximum
heat from the sun and begin photosynthesis as early as possible.
Soil: Soil in these areas is often acidic.
Other Common Environments Present: Environmental conditions
result in sometimes extensive, persistent
patches of vegetation other than spruce
- bogs (muskeg) occur in poorly drained, glacial depressions. Sphagnum moss forms a
spongy mat over ponded water. Growing on this mat are species of the tundra such as
cottongrass and shrubs of the heath family. Black spruce and larch ring the edge.
- Pine forests, in North America dominated by the jack pine (Pinus banksiana),
occur on sandy outwash plains and former dune areas. These are low nutrient, droughty
substrates not tolerated by spruce and fir.
- Larch forests claim the thin, waterlogged soil in level areas underlain with
permafrost. These forests are open with understories of shrubs, mosses and lichens.
Fauna: Fur-bearing predators like
the lynx (Felis lynx) and various members of the weasel family (e.g., wolverine,
fisher, pine martin, mink, ermine, and sable) are perhaps most characteristic of the
boreal forest proper. The mammalian herbivores on which they feed include the snowshoe or
varying hare, red squirrel, lemmings, and voles.
Large herbivores are more closely associated with successional stages where there is
more nutritious browse available and include elk or wapiti (Cervus elaphus, known
as red deer in Europe) and moose (Alces alces, known as elk in Europe). The beaver
(Castor canadensis), on which the early North American fur trade was based, is also
a creature of the taiga.
Among birds, insect-eaters like the wood warblers are migratory and leave after the
breeding season. Seed-eaters (e.g., finches and sparrows) and omnivores (e.g., ravens)
tend to be year-round residents. During poor cone years, normal residents like the evening
grosbeak, pine siskin, and red crossbill leave the taiga in winter.
In North America, several variants of the boreal forest occur in the mountains of the
- In the Pacific Northwest, what amounts to a temperate rainforest is dominated by
needleleaf species such as Douglas fir, western hemlock, and other giants.
- On the windward (western) slopes of the Sierra Nevada at elevations between 4,000 and
8,000 feet, the tall western conifers are joined by the magnificent giant sequoia (Sequoia
gigantea). The specimen named General Sherman is some 3,800 years old, 272 feet tall,
and has a diameter of 37 feet. The redwood (S.
sempervirens) grows along the northern California coast. Their closest relative is the
Dawn Redwood, a deciduous conifer of the genus Metasequoia from China.
- In the Rocky Mountains, where fire is an important part of the environment, lodgepole
pines (Pinus contorta) form nearly pure, single-aged stands.
- Along the Appalachian Mountains in eastern North America the boreal forest of eastern
Canada, dominated by red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea),
extends southward with little change in species composition until Virginia. The southern
limit of balsam fir occurs in Shenandoah National Park; southward to the Great Smokies, on
isolated mountain tops, is found Fraser fir (A. fraseri)