Matter
What's the Matter?
Well, the "Matter" is the stuff of which all substances in the universe are made. That's what it is.

Because all matter HAS MASS  and  TAKES UP SPACE, all matter can be detected and
    measured.

    
    Some matter is easily observed, some is more difficult to detect. ( Dark Matter,
        which we’ll discuss in Earth Science simply isn’t detectable by us at all.  To
        Dark Matter, we don’t even exist. )


PROPERTIES OF MATTER:  

    All matter has Physical and Chemical Properties which make it different from other matter.
  These Physical and Chemical Properties never change regardless of amount of matter. 
An ice cube has the same properties as an iceberg.
  Size doesn’t matter.


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:


        Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the make-up, or identify, of the matter.

                Common Physical Properties:
                    Mass-amount of matter in a substance
                    Weight-the result of gravity pulling on the atoms in matter
                    Volume-the amount of space occupied by the matter
                    Density- amount of matter in a given volume
                    Ductility-Ability to be pulled into a thin strand, or wire
                    Malleability-Ability to be pressed  or pounded into     
                            a thin sheet.
                    Boiling Point- The temperature at which a substance
                            changes from a liquid to a gas.
                    Melting Point- The temperature at which a substance
                            changes from a solid to a liquid.
                    Electrical Conductivity- How well a substance
                            allows electricity to flow through it.
                    Solubility-The ability to dissolve in another substance.



Chemical Properties:

        Chemical Properties describe matter based on its ability to change into a new kind of matter with different properties.
       Flammability
    Oxidation/Rusting/Burning
       Reactivity to Acid
       Reactivity to Water
            

    PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES:

            PHYSICAL CHANGES-alter the form of the substance but not its  identity. 

                 For Example: Boiling water (water changes form, but still retains it’s identity as water, even while it’s steam),
                 Crushing a  soda can,  tearing up paper, mixing sugar into iced tea, filtering orange juice to remove the pulp. 
All these change the   appearance of the substance, but the substance itself remains the same substance. 
That's the essence of Physical Change. 
The form may be changed, but not the identity.
It still IS, what it WAS.

            CHEMICAL CHANGES:-One or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances.

                    Ex: burning wood-combines with oxygen, produce the glowing gases (fire), but the wood is changed into ash, gases and smoke that are no longer wood.
THAT's the essence of a Chemical Change.
The stuff is changed into a NEW substance.
It looks different, and it IS different from what you started with. 
SOMETHING NEW was created.
And you can't usually easily get back to what you had when you started.
It's DIFFERENT.






States of Matter

Since ancient times, matter has been known to exist in three states, also called phases:
 (1) solids, (2) liquids, and (3) gases.

In the 1900's, scientists identified four additional states: (1) plasmas, (2) superconductors, (3) superfluids, and (4) Bose-Einstein condensates.

In 2000, scientists announced that they had created quark-gluon plasmas.

But for pretty much all of your life, you'll just encounter matter in one of three phases:  solid, liquid and gas.

And if you're lucky, you might see lightning, which is plasma.

And of course the sun will always warm your head, and THAT's plasma too.

But mostly, just the solid, liquid or gas.


SOLID
LIQUID
GAS

Solids tend to retain their shape,

 Liquids assume the shape of their container and can flow freely.

Gases expand to fill their containers,

They resist compression (reduction in the amount of space they occupy).

Like solids, liquids resist compression.

 and they can be compressed fairly easily.

Most solids consist of small crystals packed together.

The atoms or molecules of a liquid
are in contact with one another
but are not linked,
so they can move freely past one another.

The atoms or molecules of a gas are not in contact with one another and are always moving violently.
 In gases at familiar pressures and temperatures, each atom or molecule collides with others millions or billions of times per second.




Matter can change from one state to another. When this occurs, the appearance of the matter may change drastically.


Changing states of matter
To change from one state (or phase) to another, you must simply add or subtract energy from the system.

To go from solid to liquid (melting)

ADD ENERGY (often Heat)

To go from Liquid to Gas (Vaporization or Evaporation)

ADD ENERGY

To go from Gas back to a liquid

SUBTRACT ENERGY (cool it down, lower the temperature, TAKE AWAY HEAT
(Condensation occurs!)

To go fro Liquid back to a Solid

SUBTRACT ENERGY

Boom!  You're back where you started!



Useful Vocabulary:  Vaporization, Evaporation, Condensation, Boiling Point, Melting Point, Freezing Point.