What's the Matter?
Well, the "Matter"
is the stuff of which all substances in the universe are
made. That's what it is.
Because all matter HAS MASS
and TAKES UP SPACE, all matter can be detected and
Some matter is easily observed, some is more
difficult to detect. ( Dark Matter,
which we’ll discuss in Earth
Science simply isn’t detectable by us at all. To
Dark Matter, we don’t even
PROPERTIES OF MATTER:
All matter has Physical and Chemical Properties
which make it different from other matter.
These Physical and Chemical
Properties never change regardless of amount of matter.
An ice cube has the same properties as an iceberg.
Size doesn’t matter.
Physical properties are
those that can be observed without changing the make-up, or
identify, of the matter.
Mass-amount of matter in a substance
result of gravity pulling on the atoms in matter
amount of space occupied by the matter
amount of matter in a given volume
to be pulled into a thin strand, or wire
Malleability-Ability to be
pressed or pounded into
a thin sheet.
Boiling Point- The temperature at which
changes from a liquid to a gas.
Melting Point- The temperature at which
changes from a solid to a liquid.
Electrical Conductivity- How well a
allows electricity to flow through it.
Solubility-The ability to dissolve in
Chemical Properties describe
matter based on its ability to change into a new kind of matter
with different properties.
Reactivity to Acid
Reactivity to Water
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES:
CHANGES-alter the form of the substance
but not its identity.
Example: Boiling water (water changes form, but still retains
it’s identity as water, even while it’s steam),
Crushing a soda can, tearing up paper, mixing
sugar into iced tea, filtering orange juice to remove the
All these change the appearance of the substance, but
the substance itself remains the same substance.
That's the essence of Physical Change.
The form may be changed,
but not the identity.
It still IS, what it WAS.
CHANGES:-One or more substances combine
or break apart to form new substances.
burning wood-combines with oxygen, produce the glowing gases
(fire), but the wood is changed into ash, gases and
smoke that are no longer wood.
THAT's the essence of a Chemical Change.
The stuff is changed
into a NEW substance.
It looks different, and it IS different from what you started
SOMETHING NEW was created.
And you can't usually easily get back to what you had when you
States of Matter
Since ancient times, matter has
been known to exist in three states, also called phases:
(1) solids, (2) liquids, and (3) gases.
In the 1900's, scientists
identified four additional states: (1) plasmas, (2)
superconductors, (3) superfluids, and (4) Bose-Einstein
In 2000, scientists announced that
they had created quark-gluon plasmas.
But for pretty much all of your life, you'll just encounter matter
in one of three phases: solid, liquid and gas.
And if you're lucky, you might see lightning, which is plasma.
And of course the sun will always warm your head, and THAT's
But mostly, just the solid, liquid or gas.
Solids tend to retain their shape,
Liquids assume the shape of their container and can flow
Gases expand to fill their containers,
They resist compression (reduction in the amount of space
Like solids, liquids resist compression.
and they can be compressed fairly easily.
Most solids consist of small crystals packed together.
The atoms or molecules of a liquid
are in contact with one another
but are not linked,
so they can move freely past one another.
The atoms or molecules of a gas are not in contact with
one another and are always moving violently.
In gases at familiar pressures and temperatures,
each atom or molecule collides with others millions or
billions of times per second.
Matter can change from one state to another.
When this occurs, the appearance of the matter may change
Changing states of matter
To change from one
state (or phase) to another, you must simply add or
subtract energy from the system.
To go from solid to liquid (melting)
ADD ENERGY (often Heat)
To go from Liquid to Gas (Vaporization or Evaporation)
To go from Gas back to a liquid
SUBTRACT ENERGY (cool it down, lower the temperature,
TAKE AWAY HEAT
To go fro Liquid back to a Solid
Boom! You're back where you started!
Vaporization, Evaporation, Condensation, Boiling
Point, Melting Point, Freezing Point.